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New findings of the doctoral thesis of PhD students Do Duc Tu
Updated: 7/11/2012 4:02:29 PM GMT + 7






Name  of  the  doctor  thesis:  “Developing transport infrastructure in the Red River Delta region until 2030 in the direction of modernisation”.

Research field: Economics of Development           Code: 62 31 01 05

Research student: Do Duc Tu

Scientific advisors:  - Professor, Doctor of science Nguyen Quang Thai

                                 - Doctor Nguyen Quang Vinh

The thesis is a scientific work of 180 pages excluding the annexes, which is seriously and elaborately researched and having new conclusions as follow:

-  The  thesis  has  summarized  existing  concepts  about  infrastructure  and  made  a  new concept  about  infrastructure.  Base  on  this,  the  thesis  has  clarified  what  is  transport infrastructure  and  its  components;  relationship  between  transport  infrastructure  and transportation  organisation;  relationship  between  transport  infrastructure  and  other  socio-economic infrastructure; characteristics of transport infrastructure; and the role of transport infrastructure  in  socio-economic  development.  The  thesis  also  clarified  what  is  transport infrastructure  development  in  the  direction  of  modernisation;  principles  in  transport infrastructure  development  such  as  development  of  transport  infrastructure  must  be synchronized,  one  step  ahead  and  with  long-term  vision.  The  thesis  has  given  a  set  of indicators and criteria reflecting modernity and synchronization of transport infrastructure.

- The thesis has summarized experiences of some advanced countries in the world in developing  transport  infrastructure  and  drawn  lessons  for  Vietnam.  The  thesis  is  the  first scientific  work  in  Vietnam  presenting  analysis  and  assessments  about  development  status of transport infrastructure of the Red River Delta region in the direction of modernisation; mentioned gained achievements, existing weaknesses of each field and the whole system of transport infrastructure in the region, and the causes of these weaknesses.

- The thesis has set up forecasts about demands of passenger and cargo transportation in the Red River Delta  region, base on the  correlation between  economic growth rate and transportation demand growth rate.

-  The  thesis  has  proposed  a  set  of  development  view-points  for  transport infrastructure  in  general  and  transport  infrastructure  in  the  Red  River  Delta  region  in particular; presented targets and directions to developing transport infrastructure of the Red River Delta region until 2030 in the direction of modernisation.

- The thesis has proposed solutions of breakthrough in mobilizing financial resources for  transport  infrastructure  development;  given  solutions  to  raise  quality,  efficiency  in transport infrastructure investment...

- The thesis has proposed recommendations to State authorities to further attract non-budget  resources  to  develop  transport  infrastructure;  to  raise  quality  and  efficiency  in transport infrastructure investment; to settle traffic congestion in Hà Nội...


                                                                                           Hanoi, 18th April 2012

Confirmed by scientific advisors                                       Research student




                                                                                               Do Duc Tu




















  Research field: Economics of Development

  Code: 62 31 01 05







Hanoi - 2012






Scientific advisors:

1. Professor, Doctor of Science Nguyen Quang Thai

2. Doctor Nguyen Quang Vinh


Reviewer 1: Professor, Doctor of Science Nghiem Van Dinh

Reviewer 2: Associate Professor, Doctor Ngo Thang Loi

Reviewer 3: Doctor Ly Huy Tuan


This doctor thesis will be defended before the council of marking doctor thesis of institute level, which is gathered in the Development Strategy Institute, Ministry of Planning and Investment

At........ hour, date, month, 2012


It is able to study this doctor thesis at:

- The National Library of Vietnam

- The Development Strategy Institute





1. Necessity of the thesis subject

The  Red  River  Delta  region  (RRDR)  -  one  of  the  two  biggest  economic center of the country, is convergence place of many important road and railway trunks, is port for air and sea transportation of the whole Northern of Vietnam. Although, transport infrastructure of the region has been invested and upgraded,

however  remains  backward,  lack  of  synchronism  and  does  not  satisfy  need  of socio-economic development. That situation request soon investment to upgrade and modernise transport infrastructure of the region.

However, in the past year, the issue of transport infrastructure development of  the  RRDR  just  be  mentioned  in  very  limited  extent  by  a  few  projects  in strategies or master plans of transport sector or provinces in the region. None of overall plan for development of the RRDR’s transport infrastructure have been made.  Beside,  until  now,  there  is  none  of  scientific  work  research  on  issue  of transport  infrastructure  development  toward  modernisation;  at  the  same  time, there is none of scientific research on the status and the development directions of transport infrastructure of the RRDR until 2030.

Deeply  aware  both  theoretically  and  practically  of  the  necessity  of  the research  on  transport  infrastructure  and  developing  transport  infrastructure toward  modernization,  author  has  chosen  the  subject:  “Developing  transport infrastructure  in  the  Red  River  Delta  region  until  2030  in  the  direction  of modernisation” as doctor thesis subject.

2. Purpose and signification of the thesis

a) Purpose of the thesis

Building  theoretical  foundation  about  infrastructure  in  general,  transport infrastructure in particular and the issue of developing transport infrastructure in the  direction  of  modernisation;  base  on  this,  assessing  development  status  of transport infrastructure in the RRDR, giving directions and solutions to develop

transport  infrastructure  of  this  region  until  2030  in  the  direction  of modernisation.

b) Signification of the thesis

-  The  thesis  will  contribute  to  the  clarification  of  general  theory  about infrastructure,  infrastructure  development,  especially  the  issue  of  developing transport  infrastructure  in  the  direction  of  modernisation,  thereby  serving  the research and teaching.

-  The  thesis  will  be  reference  document  for  the  management  of  transport infrastructure investment in the RRDR and in the whole country as well.

3. Scope and object of the thesis research

a) Scope of research

- Some issues of general theory about infrastructure, infrastructure development and developing transport infrastructure toward modernisation.

- Status and development directions for the RRDR’s transport infrastructure, which  mainly  focus  on  national  transport  infrastructure  and  transport infrastructure of the Capital city of Hanoi - the biggest city in the region.

-  Scope  of  time:  The  thesis  studies  the  status  of  the  RRDR’s transport infrastructure  mainly  in  period  since  the  launch  of  the  Country’s Renovation (Doi  Moi)  so  far;  and  proposes  development  directions  for  the  RRDR’s transport infrastructure until 2030.

b) Object of research

Object  of  the  thesis  research  is  some  issues  of  general  theory  of infrastructure,  theoretical  issue  of  transport  infrastructure  development  toward modernisation;  status  and  development  directions  for  the  RRDR’s transport infrastructure until 2030.

4. Methodology

In process of completing the thesis, author has applied research methods like method  of  statistical  analysis,  method  of  forecasting  by  extrapolating  trends, method of comparison, method of map; method of expert.

5. Main and new contributions of the thesis

-  The  thesis  has  clarified  awareness  and  concepts  about  infrastructure, infrastructure development toward modernisation; made a list of indicators  and criteria reflecting modernity and synchronization of transport infrastructure.

- The thesis is the first scientific work analyzing, assessing successfully the RRDR's  transport  infrastructure  in  the  direction  of  modernisation;  has  made accurate  comments  which  are  reference  for  policy  makers  in  the  sector  of transport infrastructure in our country.

-  The  thesis  has  proposed  a  set  of  development  view-points  for  transport infrastructure in general; directions to developing transport infrastructure in the RRDR until 2030 in the direction of modernisation and solutions to realize these directions.

6. Introduction of the thesis layout

The  thesis  is  structured  into  3  chapters,  excluding  the  foreword,  the conclusion and the annexes. The detail is:

-  Chapter  I:  Theoretical  and  practical  issues  about  transport  infrastructure development in the direction of modernisation.

- Chapter II: Development status of transport infrastructure in the Red River Delta region.

-  Chapter  III:  Directions  and  solutions  to  develop  transport  infrastructure  in  the Red River Delta region until 2030 in the direction of modernisation.





1.1  Some  theoretical  issues  about  infrastructure  and  transport infrastructure

1.1.1 Some theoretical issues about infrastructure Concept about infrastructure

a) Term of infrastructure

The  term  of  infrastructure origins from  the  French,  after that  imported into the  United  Kingdom  and  the  USA  [61],  [56].  This  term  originally  used  in  the military field, after that used in civilian field. In civilian meaning, infrastructure was  understood  as  facilities  like  roads,  bridges,  airports,  seaports,  electrical power network, water supply network, communication network..., also including organisation  and  operation  mechanism  for  assets  mentioned  about  can  operate efficiently to serve the human nature.

The  term  of  infrastructure  is  written  in  both  English  and  French  as "infrastructure".  This  word  is  a  combination  of  the  Latin  prefix  "infra"  and "structura"  [56].  Infra  means  foundation,  the  foundation,  the  section  below  or "hạ tầng" in Vietnamese. Structura  means the structure,  structures or “kết cấu” in  Vietnamese.  So,  infrastructure  is  translated  into  Vietnamese as "kết cấu hạ tầng".

b) Concept about infrastructure

In  the  society,  there  are  many  kind  of  facilities,  but  only  essential  and foundation facilities such as roads, bridges, airports, ports, power supply system, water  supply  system...  serving  common  interests  of  society,  being  preconditions for  the  development  of  economy  and  society,  are  considered  as  infrastructure. Other  kinds  of  facilities  built  for  purpose  of  individual  use  or  do  not  serving interests of mass of people such as houses, restaurants, hotels... are not considered as infrastructure.

Infrastructure  is  specific  technical  works  and  attached  to  them  are  rules  or specific operation mechanisms. These rules or mechanism will ensure this work operates effectively.

From  the  above  analysis,  author  think  that:  Infrastructure  is  overall  of material  and  technical  facilities  of  foundation  that  ensure  the  development  of economy  and  society  and  daily  life  of  the  people,  including  transport  works, power supply system, water  supply  system,  drainage and  wastewater  treatment system,  telecommunication  system,  healthcare  and  education  institutions,  basis of  public  recreation...  and  attached  to  them  are  specific  rules  and  operation mechanisms. Kinds of infrastructure

Follow opinions of the author, there are many kinds of infrastructure in the economy.  The  classification  of  infrastructure  is  to  help  the  society  to  easily identify  and  easily  distinguish  between  different  types  of  infrastructure;  at  the same  time,  to  help  managers  could  manage  better  infrastructure  investment

activities.  With  that  opinion,  author  thinks that  we could classify  infrastructure in  the  following  way:  Classification  by  field  or  sector;  classification  by economic  or  social  characteristics  of  the  infrastructure  work;  classification  by management level.

1.1.2 Some theoretical issues about transport infrastructure What is transport infrastructure?

In  daily  life,  people  always  have  needs  to  move  and  transport  goods  from one  place  to  another.  To  travel  and  transport  goods  easily  and  quickly,  the mankind  has  constantly  created  transport  vehicles  from  simple  to  modern  and complex such as bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, train, ship, aircraft...

Along  with  the  creation  of  new  transport  vehicle,  the  mankind  constructs works like roads, bridges, terminals, ports, airport... for these vehicles can move, pick up passengers and handle cargo conveniently and safely. These works are transport infrastructure.

So,  we  can  conclude that: Transport  infrastructure is material  and technical facilities of foundation such as roads, bridges, airports, ports... constructed by the man  to  ensure  the  movements,  passenger  pick-up,  cargo  handling  of  transport vehicles take place quickly, easily and safely. Kinds of transport infrastructure

Transport  vehicles  that  the  man  uses  popularly  today  are  automobiles,  trains, aircrafts, ships, boats... Each vehicle uses a specific transport infrastructure. So, transport infrastructure has 5 main kinds, which are infrastructure of road traffic, infrastructure of railway  transport,  infrastructure  of  air  traffic,  infrastructure  of  maritime  traffic  and infrastructure of river traffic. Transport infrastructure and transportation organisation

Among all types of transport infrastructure, roads are complementary works for  other  kinds  of  transport  infrastructure  like  railways,  aviation,  maritime, inland  waterway.  Road  network  connecting  seaports,  airports,  river  ports  and terminals, railway terminals form a smooth and uninterrupted traffic system.

Airports,  seaports  are  gates,  clues  of  passenger  and  cargo  transport of each country  or  region.  The  organisation  of  traffic  to  these  traffic  hubs  is  very complicated;  requiring  a  combination  of  transport  modes  like  road  transport, railway transport and river transport. Transport infrastructure in relationship with other infrastructure

In  the  system  of  socio-economic  infrastructure,  transport  infrastructure  is  a principal  and  very  important  component.  Transport  infrastructure  appears everywhere and has relationship along with other types of infrastructure such as power supply system, water supply system, drainage system, telecommunication system... Some characteristics of transport infrastructure

a) Transport infrastructure is public property

Transport  infrastructure  is  common  product  of  the  whole  society, constructed  to  serve  interests  of  all  society.  Governments  of  countries  in  the world  are  normally  responsible  for  investments  in  transport  infrastructure  by state  budget.  Transport  infrastructure  works  therefore  are  common  property  of

all  people.  In  reality,  there  are  few  transport  infrastructure  works  invested  by private sector. However, after a time of collecting fees, these works will be also transferred to the Government.

b) Transport infrastructure having systematic characteristic.

The  most  basic  feature  of  transport  infrastructure  is  systematic.  Transport infrastructure works do not exist or operate separately. They complement and tie together  into  a  system.  So,  when  saying  about  transport  infrastructure,  we  call transport infrastructure system. Role of transport infrastructure for socio-economic development

a) Role of transport infrastructure for economic development

* Role of transport infrastructure for economic growth

Transport  infrastructure  is  preconditions  for  economic  growth.  Transport infrastructure  developed  will  create  favourable  conditions  for  cargo  flows circulating  quickly  and  smoothly.  This  will  promote  business,  production  and economic growth.

On the other hand, spending for transport infrastructure investments have direct effects to economic  growth. J.M. Keynes [33]  had  generalized these effects in the model of multiplier. Production increased by investment in transport infrastructure is calculated by the following formula:


Q = ---------------- x I

         1 - MPC

In which: Q is the production increased by spending for investment; I is the amount of money spent for investment; MPC is the marginal consumption trend.

* Role  of  transport  infrastructure  in  economic  restructuring  and production disposition

To  save  transportation  cost,  investors  only  choose  places  where  traffic conditions  are  favourable  to  establish  their  enterprises.  Therefore,  transport infrastructure of a region developed will attract investors to come to this region. New  investments  will  create  new  economic  sectors  for  this  region.  The

economic restructuring so will take place.

* Role of transport infrastructure in enhancing the competitiveness of the economy

Competitiveness  of  the  economy  directly  relates  to  two  factors  which  are product  cost  and  investment  environment.  Transport  infrastructure  developed will  be  condition  for  lowering  the  product  cost  due  to  transportation  cost reduced and improve investment environment. So, the development of transport infrastructure will enhance the competitiveness of the economy.

a) Role of transport infrastructure for social development

*Transport  infrastructure  development  contributes  to  improve  people's quality life

Transport  infrastructure  development  will  stimulate  economic  growth; improve  revenue  and  people's  living  standard.  Therefore,  people  will  have conditions to enjoy higher material, cultural and spiritual conditions.

* Transport  infrastructure  developed  and  its  impacts  to  population disposition

When  a  new  road  launched,  living  conditions  and  business  conditions  of people living in areas along two sides of the road are improved. People from other places  will  move  to  these  areas,  because  they  will  have  better  living  conditions and opportunities to earn money easier.

1.2 Some theoretical issues about transport infrastructure development in the direction of modernisation

1.2.1  What  is  transport  infrastructure  development  in  the  direction  of modernisation?

The  concept  "modern"  that  the  process  of  transport  infrastructure development must be directed is the modernity of science and technology. This modernity  is  peaks  of  contemporary  science  and  technology.  Developing transport  infrastructure  in  the  direction  of  modernisation  is  the  application  of modern  science  and  technology  achievements  to  design,  construct  and  operate transport infrastructure works, by this way approaching the world level.

1.2.2 Principles in transport infrastructure development

1.2.2 Development of transport infrastructure must be synchronized

Transport infrastructure is a smooth and uninterrupted system. So, development of  transport  infrastructure  must  be  synchronized  in  terms  of  technical  and technological standard, construction time and building space. Development of transport infrastructure must be one step ahead

Development  of  transport  infrastructure  must  be  one  step  ahead,  meaning that transport infrastructure works must be constructed one step ahead in terms of time, become preconditions for investments in production and business. Development of transport infrastructure with long-term vision

Investment  in  transport  infrastructure  is  always  expensive  and  affects  in many  aspects  to  people's  life.  So,  to  avoid  wasting  resources  due  to  repair  or rebuild after, we must construct transport infrastructure with long-term vision.

1.2.3  Set  of  indicators  and  criteria  reflecting  modernity  and synchronization of transport infrastructure  Set  of  indicators  and  criteria  reflecting  modernity  of  transport infrastructure

 1) Rate of expressway

Expressway is the symbol of modernity of road traffic infrastructure. So, we use rate of expressway to reflect the modernity of road traffic infrastructure. 


     Rct = -------------   x 100 (%)



In  which:  Rct  is  rate  of  expressways;  Lct  is  total  length  of  expressways;  Ldb is total length of all kinds of road (excluding rural roads and alleyways).

2) Vehicle speeds allowed

Vehicle  speeds  allowed  in  each  country  are  regulated  by  the  road management  agency  of  this  country.  Vehicle  speeds  allowed  of  each  road  are determined  on  the  basis  of  quality  and  technical  standards  of  this  road.  So, vehicle  speeds  allowed  are  general  indicator  reflecting  faithfully  the  modernity of road traffic infrastructure. Vehicle speeds allowed are calculated by km/h.

3) Grade of road

Road  has  two  types  of  urban  road  and  non-urban  road.  Urban  road  is classified as urban expressway, main street, collection street and internal street. Non-urban  road  is  classified  as  expressway,  road  of  grade  I,  road  of  grade  II, road of grade III... Each kind of road has specific design standards and permits vehicles run at different speed. So, grade of road reflects the modernity of road

transport infrastructure.

4) Application level of intelligent transport system

Intelligent  transport  system  -  ITS  is  a  system  applying  high-tech  in electronics,  informatics  and  telecommunication  to  operate  and  control transportation  activities.  So,  application  level  of  ITS  is  a  criteria  reflecting  the modernity of road transport infrastructure.

5) Rate of high-speed railway

High-speed  railway  is  the  most  modern  railway  technology  in  the  world, today.  Rate  of  high-speed  railway  is  a  measure  reflecting  the  modernity  of railway system of a country.


Rsct = ------------- x 100 (%)



In which: Rsct is rate of high-speed railway; Lsct is total length of high-speed railways; Lds is total length of all kinds of railway.

6) Rate of electrified railway

Railway  electrified  is  presently  modern  railway  technology  widely  applied around  the  world.  So,  the  rate  of  electrified  railway  also  reflects  modernity  of railway transport infrastructure.


Rsdkh = -------------  x 100 (%)



In which: Rsdkh is rate of electrified railway; Lsdkh is total length of electrified railways; Lds is total length of all kinds of railway.

7) Actual speed of train

A  train  cannot  run  at  high  speed  or  very  high  speed  if  railway  transport infrastructure  is  not  modern  and  do  not  meet  safety  standards.  So,  the  actual speed  of  train  on  the  railway  is  indicator  reflect  the  modernity  of  railway transport infrastructure.

8) Grade of airport

The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) has classified airports into grades from high to low as follow: 4F, 4E, 4D, 4C, 3C, 3B, 2B, 2A and 1A. Each grade corresponds to a capacity to receive at  maximum a kind of aircraft. Grade  4F  is  the  highest  grade,  able  to  receive  the  most  modern  and  biggest aircraft in the world - A380-800.

9) Ranking of airport

Airports  normally  are  equipped  modern  specialized  equipments  with increasing  automation  rate  and  the  disparity  between  airports  in  automation level  in reality  is  not  so  much. Therefore,  SKYTRAX  -  a  worldwide reputable rating  firm  has  given  an  airport  star  ranking  method  from  1  to  5  stars  [54].

Airport having better general assessment will be ranked at higher star ranking.

10) Biggest vessel port can received

Only big and modern port can receive big vessels. So, the biggest vessel that a  port  can  receive  is  one  of  indicator  reflecting  the  modernity  of  port.  The tonnage of vessel is measured by DWT (tons).

11) Loading capacity

Loading  capacity  is  general  indicator  reflecting  modernity  of  seaport.  Only seaport  equipped  modern  equipments  and  modern  technology  is  able  to  have high  loading  capacity.  Loading  capacity  of  seaport  is  measured  by  ton/berth length meter/year (ton/blm/year).  Some  indicators  and  criteria  reflecting  modernity  and synchronization of transport infrastructure

1) Connection status between transport modes

Assessment  of  connection status  between transport  modes  is  considered  on the  following  aspects:  With  or  without  uninterrupted  engagement  between transport modes; with or without transshipment places; number of transshipment place; time of transshipment.

2) Conformity of technical standards

This  is  the  conformity  of  technical  standards  between  components  of transport infrastructure work, between transport infrastructure work and vehicles that  it  serves.  Depending  on  each  type  of  transport  infrastructure  work,  this indicator is calculated by ton, m or cm...

3) Rate of urban land area for transport works

This  indicator  reflects  the  synchronization  in  disposing  surface  of  urban master plan.


   Rsgtdt = ----------- x 100 (%)


In  which:  Rsgtdt is  rate  of  land  area  for  transport  works;  Sgtdt is  land  area  for transport works; Sdt  is total land area of the urban.

1.3 Experiences in developing transport infrastructure of some countries in the world

1.3.1 Experiences of Japan

Japan develops transport infrastructure to eliminate gap between rich and poor regions,  but  associating  transport  infrastructure  development  with  issuance  of policies to promote business and production in poor region. Japan  highly  appreciated  the  importance  of  railway  development  and  had  had flexible policies in mobilizing resources to invest in this sector. Japan’s Government paid interest for investors during time of construction or engaged a certain net profit for  investors.  Depending  on  each  stage,  Japan’s Government  set  up  a  special account in state budget for railway investment.

1.3.2 Experiences of China

China  always  promotes  self-reliance  will  in  transport  infrastructure development.  Almost  all  transport  infrastructure  works  in  China  are  designed, constructed by enterprises of this country. Construction materials and construction equipments are also mainly domestic products. So, construction  cost is very low

and efficiency of transport infrastructure investment is very high.

The site clearance for transport infrastructure projects is carried out fast due to determination and uncompromising acts of the authorities. Besides, the authorities execute fair and transparent policies for all people.

1.3.3 Experiences of Singapore

Singapore builds strategy for transport infrastructure development with vision of 40-50 years. Main transport routes forming rigid frame of the whole transport system in the future are determined in the stage of strategy building.

Transport  infrastructure  system  is  constructed  synchronously  and  organised closely  and  scientifically.  Along with roads, there  are  always  technical  tunnel, trench or waiting tubes for underground infrastructures like power supply system, water supply system, drainage system...

The  transport  infrastructure  network  constructed  is  integrated  transport. Transport  hubs  have  interconnection  of  metro  station,  bus  station,  sky  train station...;  and  connected  with  shopping  centers,  residential  areas,  universities, hospitals, recreation areas...




2.1 General introduction about the Red River Delta region

2.1.1 Natural conditions of the Red River Delta region

The RRDR is located in the centre of the Northern of Vietnam; adjacent to the  East  Sea  in  the  East,  North  East  mountainous  provinces  and  China  in  the North,  North  West  mountainous  province  in  the  West,  Northern  central provinces in the South. The RRDR has natural area of 21.049 km2, accounts for

6,4%  area  of  the  whole  country,  including  11  provinces  and  cities  which  are Hanoi,  Hai  Phong,  Hai  Duong,  Hung  Yen,  Bac  Ninh,  Vinh  Phuc,  Thai  Binh, Nam Dinh, Ha Nam, Ninh Binh and Quang Ninh.

2.1.2 Socio-economic conditions

The RRDR is spacious and  crowded area having long history, associated with Dai Viet civilization; and is one of the two biggest economic centers of the country. In 2009, the population of the region is 19,6 million people, accounting for 22,8% the  population  of  the  country;  the  density  of  population  is  932  people/km2,  3,6 times higher than the average of the country; the rate of urban population is 29,2%.

GDP in 2009 is 24,28 billion USD, accounting for 27,1% GDP of the country. GDP per capita in 2009 is 1.238 USD, 1,2 times higher than the average of the country and has exceeded the low income by the international standards.

2.2 Development status of transport infrastructure in the RRDR

2.2.1  Development  status  of  main  transport  axes  and  gateways  of  the RRDR

a) Hanoi - Hai Phong transport axis

- National highway No.5: The national highway No.5 has length of 106km, meeting  standards  of  grade  I,  II.  The  entire  route  is  paved  asphalt  and  now  in rather  good  condition.  The  traffic  density  on  the  route  is  now  very  high,  2,68 times  higher  than  the  design  standards.  Traffic  jams  and  accidents  often  occur on the route.

- Hanoi - Hai Phong railway: This railway has length of 106km, being single track  type  with  gauge  of  1000mm.  After  many  year  of  not  being  upgraded,  the entire route has deteriorated, endangering the safety of train operation. Transport volume  by  railway  just  accounts  for  only  about  5%  of  the  total  volume  on  the Hanoi - Hai Phong transport corridor.

b) North - South transport axis

-  National  highway  No.  1:  The  national  highway  No.  1  is  arterial  road, connecting the RRDR with the Middle region and the Southern of Vietnam. The entire  route  is  paved  asphalt,  meeting  standards  of  grade  III.  Some  sections running through urban areas, meet standards of grade II. The traffic density on the route is very high, especially the section going through the RRDR. So, traffic jams and accidents often occur. Traffic density at the section running through Phu Ly, Ha Nam is 68.000 pcu/day, 2,7 times higher than the  designed capacity of road. The speed of vehicles on the route is very low, at only average of 50-60km/h.

-  Ho  Chi  Minh  highway:  This  is  the  second  North-South  arterial  road.  Ho  Chi Minh  highway  phase  I  from  Hoa  Lac  (Hanoi)  to  Binh  Phuoc  intersection  (Ho  Chi Minh  City),  newly  constructed  in  the  period  of  2000-2008,  attaining  standards  of grade III. Entire route now is in good conditions.

-  North  -  South  railway:  The  entire  route  has  length  of  1.726km,  being single tract type with gauge of 1000mm and having the same level crossing with almost roads. Due to poor infrastructure, train runs at only speed of 60-70km/h but vibration and big noise occur. Transport volume on the route is trending to

reduce and accounts for only 15% and 3% of total passenger and cargo transport volume on the North-South corridor.

c) Hanoi - Quang Ninh transport axis

The  national  highway  No.18  presently  performs  the  function  of  connecting  the two poles of development triangle Hanoi - Hai Phong - Quang Ninh. The section of Noi Bai - Chi Linh - Bai Chay - Bac Luan with length of 158km has been upgraded to standards of grade III, and now in good conditions. Traffic density on the route nearly attains designed capacity.

d) Northern coastal transport axis

The national  highway  No.10  presently  performs  the function of  connecting provinces such as Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Thai Binh with seaports in Hai Phong and  Quang  Ninh.  This  highway  has  length  of  161km,  attaining  standards  of grade  III,  now  in  rather  good  conditions.  Traffic  density  on  the  route  is

relatively high, about 20.000 pcu/day, nearly attaining designed capacity.

e) Hanoi - Lao Cai transport axis

- The axis of national highways No.2 and No.70: The section Noi Bai - Vinh Yen of national highway 2 has been expanded and upgraded  to 4 lanes and standards of grade  II.  The  rest  has  been  upgraded  to  grade  IV.  The  entire  route  now  has  good surface.  However,  due  to  steep  terrain  with  many  passes  and  small  bend  radius, vehicle speed is still low, attaining only 35-40km/h.

-  Hanoi  -  Lao  Cai  railway:  The  entire  route  has  length  of  293,5km,  single track type, gauge of 1000mm. Only section of Yen Vien - Bac Hong with length of 16km is gauge 1000mm and 1435mm. Due to little investment in upgrading, small bend radius and many passes on the route, average speed of train is only 30-35km/h.

e) Transport axis from centre of Hanoi to Noi Bai international airport

North Thang Long  - Noi Bai road performs the function of connecting Noi Bai  international  airport  with  the  centre  of  Hanoi.  This  road  has  4  lanes, attaining  standards  of  grade  II.  Traffic  density  on  the  road  is  now  very  high. Traffic jams often occur.

f) Aviation gateways

- Noi Bai international airport: This is the biggest airport of the RRDR. This airport  attains  grade  4E  according  standards  of  ICAO,  can  receive  B747-400, B777  and  the  equivalents;  and  has  capacity  of  6  million  passengers  per  year. Scale of Noi Bai international airport now is just equivalent to 1/7 Suvarnabumi airport  of  Thailand,  1/4  Kuala  Lumpur  International  Airport  of  Malaysia  and Changi airport of Singapore. In overall, Noi Bai international airport attains only grade 2 stars according to the classification method of SKYTRAX.

-  Cat  Bi  international  airport:  This  airport  attains  only  grade  4C  according standards  of  ICAO,  can  receive  maximum  A320  and  the  equivalents.  It  now cannot undertake reserve function for Noi Bai international airport and does not reach grade 1 star.

g) Maritime gateways

-  Hai  Phong  port:  This  is  national  general  port  -  the  biggest  international gateway port of Northern of Vietnam. Hai Phong port has capacity of 31 million tons per year and 1,8 million TEU per year. Presently, the majority of terminals just can receive vessels of 10.000 tons or less. Separately, Dinh Vu terminal can

receive  vessels  of  nearly  20.000  tons.  Scale  of  Hai  Phong  port  now  is  just equivalent to 1/19 Shanghai port, 1/16 Singapore port and 1/13 Hong Kong port. Loading  capacity  Nbx  of  Hai  Phong  port  just  reachs  7.100  ton/blm/year,  while that of Singapore port is 29.400 ton/blm/year and that of Shanghai port is 31.900 ton/blm/year.

- Cai Lan port: Cai Lan port has been constructed and put into operation in 2004;  having  capacity  of  5  millions  ton/year  and  240.000  TEU/year.  This  port equipped rather modern equipments, can receive vessels of 45.000 DWT. Due to having  not  railway  connection,  the  transportation  of  cargo  to  the  port  mainly executed by road.

2.2.2 General development status of RRDR's transport infrastructure Gained achievements

a) About road

- The network of national highways in the RRDR has been basically formed. This  includes  radial  highways  like  highways  No.  1,  2,  3,  5,  6,  32  and  Ho  Chi Minh highway connecting Hanoi capital, the RRDR with other regions, areas of the  country;  highways  connecting  them  with  seaports,  airports...  After  being

improved,  upgraded  or  newly  built,  these  highways  are  now  in  rather  good conditions.  Rate  of  national  highway  paved  asphalt  or  cement  concrete  in  the region  reached  68,3%,  significantly  higher  the average  of  the  country  which  is 60,2%.  At  the  end  of  2010,  the  RRDR  has  had  the  first  70km  of  expressway. The  rate  of  expressway  Rct  although  is  still  very  low,  but  initially  reached 0,72%. Thank to the improvement of road quality, vehicle speed allowed Vcp on highways  has  been  raised  from  60km/h  to  80km/h  for  sections  outside  urban area, and from 40km/h to 60km/h for section in urban area.

- The provincial road network of the RRDR's provinces and cities has been developed widely and relatively synchronous with network of national highway. Rate of provincial road asphalted or solidified reached 81,6%. Although this rate still not high, but has been much improved in comparison with the previous time

and is significantly higher the average of the country (67,4%).

-  The  network  of  urban  road  of  Hanoi  capital  is  usually  improved  and upgraded.  Some  important  avenues  having  large  traffic  volume  have  been expanded  to  4-6  lanes.  Some  overpass  have  been  constructed  at  major intersections  which  are  always  in  traffic  jams  previously.  Some  large  bridges

crossing  the  Red  river  have  been  built.  Road  network  in  new  urban  areas  has been  constructed  fairly  modern  and  synchronous.  System  of  ring  roads  has initially been formed.

b) About railway

Investment of railway sector in past time are mainly focused in putting into technical  grade  and  maintaining  existing  railway  lines;  improving  some  weak bridges  and  modernizing  information  and  signal  system;  without  new construction investments. So, achievements gained are negligible.

c) About airport

The  second  runway  and  T1  terminal  of  Noi  Bai  international  airport  has been  constructed  to  upgrade  this  airport  from  grade  4D  to  4E,  which  could receive  24/24h  B747-400  and  its  equivalent,  and  raise  its  capacity  up  to  12 times.  Night  lighting  system  and  precision  landing  system  have  been  also installed  in  Cat  Bi  international  airport.  That  helped  this  airport  can  received 24/24h A320.

d) About seaport

In only 5 year from 2004 to 2009, capacity of seaport in the RRDR has been raised up to 1,6 times, from 22 million tons to 36 million tons. The RRDR has had 2 international gateway ports which are Hai Phong port and Cai Lan port. If in  the  previous  time  only  ships  having  capacity  of  10.000  tons  or  less  could

dock in Hai Phong port, now ships of nearly 20.000 tons can dock in Dinh Vu terminal - a new terminal of Hai Phong port and ships of 45.000 tons can dock in Cai Lan port.

e) About river way

In  the  period  of  2000-2009,  230  km  of  river  way  have  been  improved, upgraded or put into technical grade; capacity of river ports have been raised up 2 million tons, from 5,5 million tons to 7,5 million tons. Loading and unloading equipments gradually mechanized. Existing weaknesses

a) About road

-  The  RRDR  still  does  not  have  a  completed  expressway.  The  existing  road network  is  mainly  narrow  and  low  technical  standard  roads.  Its  first  70km  of expressway are only short sections that have not yet created breakthrough changes for  traffic  of  the  whole  region.  Important  routes  connecting  big  economic  centers, gateways  of  the  region  are  now  just  roads  of  grade  II  or  III,  event  grade  IV.  At

present, 68,42% of roads in the region (excluding rural roads) are roads of grade III and IV; 19,91% are roads of grade 1 and II; 10,95% are roads of grade V; and only 0,72% are expressway. Meanwhile, the rate of expressway in developed countries is 12-15%, in Singapore is 4,5%, in Malaysia is 1,23% and in China is 2,5%.

- Road network although has been much improved, but rate of poor quality road is still high. In total 1.525km of national highways, just 68% of this is now in good conditions and the rest in poor conditions.

-  Same  level  intersection  is  common.  Almost  intersections  between  road  and road, between road and railway are still same level crossing. This makes streams of vehicles collide at intersections.

-  Road  network  although  has  high  density,  but  its  operation  efficiency  is  low. Road  infrastructure  has  not  yet  developed  one  step  ahead  and  creates  favourable conditions for socio-economic developments.

-  Road  in  general  and  urban  road  in  particular  have  not  yet  constructed synchronously  with  other  infrastructure  works  like  power  supply  system,  water supply system, drainage system... This leads to frequent road digging.

b) About railway

- After many years not being newly built, railway transport infrastructure becomes very old, backward, and in low technical standards. Single track and 1.000mm lines are majority  and  account  for  68,02%  of  total  length  of  railway  lines  in  the  RRDR. Intersections  between  railway  and  road  are  almost  same  level  crossing.  Due  to  low quality and poor stability of railway line, train is shaking and having loud noises at speed from 50km/h and more. Meanwhile, speed of normal train in China, Japan or Malaysia is about 120km/h and speed of express train in Japan, France and Germany is in average of 300km/h.

-  Railway  stations  are  also  old,  backward,  low  standard  and  are  mainly  built  in French colonial period. Ticket sale mode though has been improved, but still mainly manual  mode.  Railway  lines  in  station  are  paralleled  and  in  same  level,  so  up  and down train approaches of passengers are inconvenient.

c) About airport

-  Airports  in  the  region  remain  small  and  rather  backward  in  comparison  with other  airports  in  region  and  in  the  world.  According  classification  criteria  of SKYTRAX mentioned in chapter I, Noi Bai international airport just meets  grade 2 stars standards and Cat Bi international airport still does not meet standards of 1 star grade. Meanwhile, aiport in the South East Asia region are all classified at grade 4 or

5 stars.

-  Airport  terminals  are  all  in  overload:  In  2009,  passenger  volume  passing through  Noi  Bai  international  airport  exceeded  30%  of  the  T1  terminal's  design capacity; and passenger volume going through Cat Bi international airport exceeded 3,8 times of its terminal design capacity.

- Cat Bi international airport has not yet undertaken reserve function for Noi Bai international airport.

d) About seaport

- Due to lack of a big and international class seaport, large vessels running on far sea routes cannot dock at seaports in the region. Therefore, cargo of the RRDR must  be  transited  through  large  seaports  in  the  region.  This  makes  cargo  of  the region more expensive and less competitive.

- Limitations on ship flows: Ship flows from sea to ports are all long and narrow. Average length of ship flows is 28,7 km. Besides, ship flows are usually deposited by alluvia. That requires regularly maintenance and dredging.

-  Loading  equipments  together  with  management  mode  are  still  backward. So, loading capacity just attains 7.100 ton/blm/year.

-  Transport  connection  between  seaports  and  the  national  transport  network remains  weaknesses  and  synchronous.  Railway  transport  has  not  yet  been  widely used in cargo transportation to port.

e) About river way

- River way transport mainly bases on natural conditions. Intensive investment for adjusting and upgrading vessel flows is little.

-  River  ports  are  almost  small  and  having  backward  loading  equipments.  In many river ports and terminals, manual loading is major.

-  Road  to  the  port  is  rarely  invested.  So,  approach  transport  to  the  port  faces difficulties. Causes of remaining weaknesses

-  Vietnam  develops  from  a  poor,  backward  and  heavily  destroyed  agricultural country,  so  transport  infrastructure  is  very  poor.  To  develop  forward  the modernization, a long investment process must be undertaken.

- Investment capital for transport infrastructure development remains small. The total fund of the whole country for transport infrastructure investment in 2010 is just 6  billion  USD  and  this  of  the  RRDR  is  1,8  billion  USD.  Meanwhile,  to  complete and modernize transport infrastructure system of the RRDR, hundreds billion USD are required.

- Unreasonableness in resource allocation structure from the central state budget lead  to  lack  of  capital  for  investment  in  crucial  transport  infrastructure  works  like expressways,  seaport...  Ministry  of  Transport  annually  granted  only  3.000  billion VND of internal fundamental construction capital, while a province like Ha Giang or Kon Tum is granted by the central state budget about 2.000 billion VND a year.

-  Spread  investment  situation  occurring  commonly  in  both  central  and  local levels,  leads  dispersion  of  resource,  investment  prolonged,  low  investment efficiency and transport infrastructure slowly improved. Besides, big loss and waste in  transport  infrastructure  investment  have  made  small  capital  for  transport infrastructure investment even smaller.

- Resource allocation structure in transport sector remains unreasonable, leading unbalanced development between transport sub-sectors.

-  Due  to  investment  without  long-term  vision  and  no  land  reserve,  some newly  invested  national  highways  rapidly  become  overload  but  cannot  be expanded.

-  Due  to  lack  of  synchronous  coordination  between  sectors,  many  newly constructed roads have been dug and must be repaired over and over again, causing waste of State's budget.

- Domestic contractors still do not have sufficient qualifications to construct big and complex transport infrastructure works.



3.1 Forecast on economic prospects of the whole country and the RRDR by 2030

3.1.1 Forecast on economic prospects of the whole country by 2030

At present, none of formal forecast is published about economic prospects of Vietnam by 2030. There are only forecasts for the 2011-2020 period. In 2010, GDP of our country at current price, achieved 106 billion USD [2], 3,2 times higher than that of 2010 and more than 15 times higher than that of 1990 [50]; GDP per capita reached 1.200 USD. Vietnam has surpassed the threshold of a low income country and joined group of middle income economies.

Author thinks that by reforming  economic growth model and restructure of the  economy  as  Congress  XI  of  the  Party  has  outlined,  Vietnam's  economy  is going  to  overcome  present  difficulties  and  have  new development  momentum; will not fall into trap of a middle-income country and shall achieve growth rate

of  7-8%  in  the  period  of  2011-2020  as  the  targets  set  by  Congress  XI  of  the Party,  while  will  maintain  growth  rate  of  6-7%  in  the  2021-2030  period.  By 2030,  GDP  at  current  price  is  to  achieve  approximately  450  billion  USD  and GPD per capita will reach about 4.500 USD.

3.1.2 Forecast on economic prospects of the RRDR by 2030

Similar  as  national  level,  up  to  date,  none  of  formal  forecast  released  about economic prospects of the RRDR by 2030. The report of the RRDR's socio-economic development master plan for period of 2011-2020 [7] has set development targets for the RRDR: Growth rate of 8% a year and more; contribution proportion of the region in the country's GDP increased from 27,1% in 2009 to 30% in 2020.

Author  thinks  that  the  RRDR  with  its  strengths  such  as  favourable geographic and natural conditions, high quality labor resource, strong will..., in many years to come, will continue to be a dynamic development region, one of two economic generators of the country. Follow growth momentum in period of

2001-2010, the RRDR will have growth rate at least of 1,2 to 1,3 times that of the country. Growth rate of the region will achieve about 9-10 in the 2011-2020 period  and  8-9%  in  the  2021-2030  period.  By  2020,  GDP  of  the  region  will attain about 67 billion USD and GDP per capita will achieve about 3.200 USD,

equivalent to that of Malaysia in 2000. By 2030, GDP of the region will attain about  150  billion  USD  and  GDP  per  capita  will  achieve  about  7.500  USD, equivalent to that of Malaysia in 2008 [47].

3.2 Forecasts on transport demand in the RRDR in period to 2030

3.2.1 Forecast on road transport demand

- Volume of goods transport and goods circulation by road in the region is to increase  respectively  by  12,8%  a  year  and  15,2%  a  year  in  the  2011-2020 period; and by 10,4% a year and 12,3% a year in the 2021-2030 period.

 -  Vehicle  density  on  some  major  highways  is  forecasted  to  increase  by approximately 10-12% a year in the 2011-2020 period and by 6-7% a year in the 2021-2030 period.

-  Quantity  of  individual  vehicle  has  signs  of  booming  in  coming  years.  By 2020,  Hanoi  is  expected  to  have  approximately  1.029.000  cars,  4  times  higher than  that  of  2010.  By  2030,  number  of  car  in  Hanoi  is  to  be  2.668.000,  10,5 times higher than that of 2010.

3.2.2 Forecast of passenger transport demand by railway

- In the period of 2011-2020, railway transport on national railway lines will not much change, because big investments have not been done yet or have not yet  brought  efficiency.  In  the  period  of  2021-2030,  when  big  railway  projects are to be undertaken and bringing efficiency, railway's passenger transport will

increase by approximately 7-8% a year.

- Urban railway transport will ensure approximately 10% of total passenger transport demand by 2020 and 25% by 2030. Urban railway is to transport 166 million passengers by 2020 and 1,1 billion passengers by 2030.

3.2.3 Forecast of passenger volume through airport

Growth rate of passenger volume through airports in the region is to achieve approximately 15-16% a year in the 2011-2020 period and 9-10% a year in the 2021-2030  period.  Passenger  volume  through  airports  in  the  region  will  attain 40 million people by 2020 and 100 million people by 2030.

3.2.4 Forecast of cargo volume through port

Growth rate of cargo volume through ports in the region is to be about 11-13% a year in the 2011-2020 period and 9-11% a year in the 2021-2030 period. Cargo  volume  through  ports  in  the  RRDR  will  attain  96-116  million  tons  by 2020 and 248-298 million tons by 2030.

3.2.5 Forecast of river transport volume

Due  to  ever  increasing  competition  of  road  and  railway  transports,  growth rate of river transport volume is  expected to grow only 3% a year in the 2011-2030 period.

3.3  View-points,  objectives  and  directions  for  the  RRDR's  transport infrastructure development until 2030 in the direction of modernisation

3.3.1 Development view-points

- First, investment for transport infrastructure must have long-term vision.

- Second,  investment  for  transport  infrastructure  must  be  taken  one  step ahead to create pre-conditions for socio-economic development.

- Third,  using  appropriately  resources  from  state  budget  to  invest  in transport infrastructure.

- Fourth, implementing under strict discipline the principle of investment in order of priority

- Fifth, investing synchronously transport infrastructure system in the region.

-  Sixth,  transport  infrastructure  investment  must  be  oriented  to  modernity, gradually approach the world's level.

-  Seventh,  new  development  investment  must  be  parallel  with  repair  and maintenance to prolong life of transport work.

-  Eighth,  implementing  the  principle  of  saving  land  in  construction  of transport infrastructure works.

3.3.2 Development objectives Overall objectives

By  2030,  the  RRDR  will  have  a  system  of  transport  infrastructure  rather modern and synchronous, reaching at least present levels of advanced countries in the region; satisfying quickly, conveniently and safely needs of passenger and cargo transports both domestic and international. Specific objectives

a)  About  road:  Completing  construction  of  expressway  network  ensuring intra-regional  and  inter-regional  connections;  expanding  some  major  streets  in inner city of Hanoi, raising rate of land area for transport routes in old districts to  15%  and  in  new  districts  to  22-24%;  improving  and  upgrading  provincial road network to achieve at least standards of grade IV road; solidifying 100% of rural  roads;  operating  Intelligent  Transport  System  on  national  highways, provincial roads, urban roads and expressway.

b) About railway: Completing the upgrade of several major railway lines in the region  to  be  double  tracks,  electrified,  raising  train  speed  to  120km/h;  completing the  construction  of  railways  connecting  to  large  ports  and  airports;  completing construction  of  several  urban  railways  in  Hanoi  follow  international  standards, raising urban railway transport to 20% of total passenger transport in Hanoi.

c)  About  airport:  Developing  Noi  Bai  international  airport  to  be  big  and modern airport, reaching international class, ensuring receipt of A380-800 - the most  modern  aircraft  in  the  world;  upgrading  Cat  Bi  international  airport  to undertake full reserve function for Noi Bai international airport; building a new

airport in Quang Ninh province.

d)  About  seaport:  Seeking  a  suitable  place  to  build  a  deep  seaport  that  is big,  reach  international  class,  can  receive  large  vessels  of  100.000  DWT; modernizing  existing  ports  to  raise  loading  capacity  of  these  ports  to  10.000 tons/blm/year  by  2020  and  15.000  tons/blm/year  by  2030;  completing  the construction of rest terminals of Cai Lan port, improving its ship flow to  bring 50.000 DWT into operation.

e)  About  river way:  Completing  improvement  and  upgrade  of  major  river ways  to  bring  1.000  to  3.000  DWT  vessels  into  operation;  modernizing  river ports, mechanizing entire process of loading and transmitting cargo.

3.3.3  Development  directions for the RRDR’s transport infrastructure until 2030 in the direction of modernisation  General  development  direction  for  each  sector  of  transport infrastructure

a) Development direction for road transport infrastructure

* National highways:

- Focus resources on developing expressway network: Expressway with great passing  capacity  is  now  solution  for  traffic  jams  on  national  highways  of  the RRDR and the country. In the period until 2030, it is necessary to form basically the region's expressway network that includes intra-region and inter-region routes.

-  Improving,  upgrading  and  promoting  the  efficiency  of  existing  national highways:  In  the  next  period,  continuing  to  improve  and  upgrade  national highway sections which are now in poor conditions. Striving to reach  100% of national highways paved asphalt or cement concrete by 2030; as the same time,

bring into operation commonly ITS.

* Provincial  roads:  Local  authorities  concentrate  on  improvement  and upgrade of provincial roads; expanding too narrow roads. Trying to upgrade all provincial roads in the region to reach at least grade IV road standards.

* Rural roads: Striving to attain by 2030, 100% of district road, commune road and village road paved asphalt or cement concrete. District roads are to reach at least standards of grade IV road; commune roads at least grade V road. At the same time, developing network of field roads, consolidating 100% of major field roads.

* Urban roads:

+ Urban roads of Hanoi capital:

- For old districts, expanding existing roads to raise rate of land for road up to 15%. Determining some streets of vertical and horizontal axes and expand them to be large avenues with 8, 10 or even 12 lanes to satisfy increasing traffic demand.

- For newly built districts, reserving 22-24% of total urban area to build roads. Constructing urban road toward separating traffic lanes, allowing vehicles to run mainly in one direction roads and do not need to stop at intersections; constructing urban roads in synchronization with other types of urban infrastructure.

-  Constructing  integrated  transport  network  in  both  old  and  newly  build urban  areas.  Transport  hubs  have  interconnection  of  metro  station,  bus  station, sky  train  station...;  and  connected  with  shopping  centers,  residential  areas, universities, hospitals, recreation areas...

+  Other  cities  in  the  region:  Reserving  20-22%  of  total  urban  area  to construct roads; building some major avenues with 6-8 lanes to ensure favourble traffic in the urban; building overpass at large intersections.

b) Development direction for railway transport infrastructure

- Upgrading all national railway lines to be electrified railway with gauge of 1.435mm  in  order  to  raise  speed  of  train,  quality  of  train  cars  and  to  connect synchronously with international railway lines. For lines on important transport axis like North - South axis, Hanoi - Hai Phong axis, constructing double track

railway electrified. In the period until 2030, do not build North - South express railway.

- Developing urban railway network to meet approximately 7-10% needs of passenger transport of Hanoi by 2020 and 25% by 2030. To reach these targets, in the period until 2020, 2 or 3 urban railway lines must be constructed and in the  2021-2030,  urban  railway  network  of  Hanoi  must  be  basically  completed.

Urban  railway  line  must  be  built  on  transport  axis  having  huge  traffic  volume. Metro  must  be  choice  of  priority  for  districts,  especially  4  old  districts.  Urban railway  stations  must  be  interconnected  with  famous  tourism  places,  shopping centers, residential areas, recreation areas...

c) Development direction for airports

- Focus resources on developing Noi Bai international airport to be a modern and  international  class  airport  which  attains  standards  of  grade  4F  stipulated  by ICAO and has large and 4 stars terminal.

- Promptly upgrading and modernizing Cat Bi international airport, so that this airport can fully undertake  reserve function for Noi Bai international airport and satisfy passenger needs of Hai Phong city.

-  Studying  and  building  a  new  airport  in  Quang  Ninh  province  to  promote tourism  activities  in  this  province  and  to  reduce  passenger  pressure  to  Noi  Bai international airport.

-  Restoring  and  developing  Gia  Lam  airport  to  serve  short  domestic  flights, taxi flight, sport flight...

d) Development direction for seaports

- Build a deep and international class seaport which has capacity of 300-500 million  tons  and  can  receive  vessels  of  100.000  DWT.  This  seaport  will  be equipped modern equipments to reach loading capacity of 25.000 tons/blm/year and more. Follow a survey of Ministry of Transport and JICA, Lach Huyen area

of  Hai  Phong  has  favourable  natural  conditions  to  build  a  big  seaport  that satisfies above mentioned requirements. In the period until 2030, it is necessary to focus resources on building and operating a deep seaport in Lach Huyen area.

- Intensifying depth-investments to upgrade existing ports in Hai Phong and to raise  loading  capacity  of  these  ports  from  7.100  tons/blm/year  to  10.000 tons/blm/year by 2020 and 15.000 tons/blm/year by 2030.

- Investing in upgrade of vessel flows, so that ships of 20.000 DWT and bigger can dock at Dinh Vu terminals and 50.000 DWT ships can dock at Cai Lan port.

-  Building  synchronously  connection  transport  system  to  ports  like  road connecting  Hanoi  -  Hai  Phong  expressway  to  Lach  Huyen  port  and  existing ports in Hai Phong.

e) Development direction for river way infrastructure

* Improving and upgrading existing river ways

- Hanoi - Lach Giang river way: Upgrading entire way to reach standards of grade I with width of 70m and depth of more than 3m, permitting boat of 1.000 tons to come Hanoi river port.

 -  Quang  Ninh  -  Ninh  Binh  river  way:  Upgrading  entire  way  to  reach standards of grade III with width of 50m and depth of 1,5m.

- Quang Ninh - Pha Lai river way: Upgrading entire way to reach standards of grade II with width of 70m and depth of more than 2m. Investing in installation of buoys and signs system modern, synchronized on

all over river ways. Studying to apply ITS for river way transport.

* Modernizing system of river ports

Focus  on  depth-investment  and  modernization  of  existing  river  ports,  in order  to  raise  capacity  and  operation  quality  of  ports.  As  the  same  time, intensifying  improvements  of  stock  and  logistics  services,  and  connectivity between  ports  and  other  transport  modes;  improving,  upgrading  and

consolidating routes to the ports. Development direction for main transport axes  and gateways of the RRDR

a) Hanoi - Hai Phong transport axis

-  Constructing  Hanoi  -  Hai  Phong  expressway  with  4  lanes  in  the  period until  2020  and  6-8  lanes  in  the  period  until  2030  to  settle  present  traffic  jam status  on  national  highway  No.5  and  to  ensure  transport  connection  to  the international gateway port of the region.

- Constructing Hanoi - Hai Phong railway to be double track and electrified railway with gauge of 1.435mm to serve cargo and passenger transports. Try to raise  cargo  transport  volume  by  railway  to  25-30%  of  total  cargo  transport volume on Hanoi - Hai Phong transport axis.

b) North - South transport axis

-  Concentrating  resources  on  investing  as  soon  as  possible  entire  North  - South expressway of Eastern side with size of 4-6 lanes in the period until 2020 and 8-10 lanes in the  period until 2030. This project must be considered as the project  of  first  priority  to  ensure  transport  connection  between  the  RRDR  and the Middle region and the Southern of Vietnam.

-  Because  traffic  volume  on  the  route  remains  small,  it  does  not  need  to expand  or  upgrade  Ho  Chi  Minh  highway  to  be  expressway  in  the  period until 2020.  It  is  just  really  necessary  to  upgrade  Ho  Chi  Minh  highway  to  be expressway of 4 lanes in the 2021-2030 period.

-  In  the  period  until  2030,  do  not  build  North  -  South  express  railway. Express railway construction is although expensive, but do not bring efficiency. Express train can transport only passenger, but can not transport cargo. Besides, ticket  for  express  train  is  very  expensive.  It  equals  to  75%  of  traditional  flight ticket and is much more expensive than low cost flight ticket. Therefore, in the period until 2030, it is necessary to concentrate resources to build North - South railway to be a double track and electrified railway to serve passenger and cargo transport, and to raise speed of train to 120km/h.

c) Hanoi - Quang Ninh transport axis

- In the period until 2020, it is not necessary to build an expressway on this transport axis. The construction of Hanoi - Quang Ninh expressway is just really to be necessary in the 2021-2030 period when traffic volume on the route is to be high. An expressway of 4-6 lanes is suitable.

- Accelerating the execution of Yen Vien - Pha Lai - Ha Long - Cai Lan railway project to promote efficiency of the work in transporting cargo to Cai Lan port.

d) Northern coastal transport axis

Constructing an expressway of 4 lanes to meet transport needs from Northern coastal  provinces  to  international  gateway  ports  in  Hai  Phong  and  Quang  Ninh. To save land, especially rice land, it is the best way if the present highway No.10 is developed to be an expressway instead of building an entirely new expressway.

e) Hanoi - Lao Cai transport axis

-  Building  Hanoi  -  Lao  Cai  expressway  of  4  lanes  on  entire  route  to implement  the  Program  of  two  corridors,  one  economic  belt  Vietnam  -  China that Leaders of two countries have committed.

- Constructing Hanoi - Lao Cai railway to be railway of 1.435mm gauge in order  to  connect  synchronously  with  trans-Asian  railway  and  to  raise  speed  of train and improve quality of train cars.

f)  Transport  axis  connecting  the  centre  of  Hanoi  capital  to  Noi  Bai international airport

Building an expressway of 6-8 lanes to connect center of Hanoi capital with Noi  Bai  international  airport.  At  the  same  time,  building  a  railway  for  serving passenger transport from center of Hanoi to this airport.

g) Aviation gateways

-  Noi  Bai  international  airport:  Concentrating  resources  to  developing  Noi Bai international airport to be one of international class airports in the region. In the period until 2030, beside terminal No.2, 3 more terminals with total capacity of  45  million  passengers  per  year  must  be  constructed.  The  third  runway  with size of 4000m*60m must be also constructed.

-  Cat  Bi  international  airport:  Upgrading  this  airport  to  reach  all  necessary standards of a reserve airport for Noi Bai international airport. As the same time, constructing  a  terminal  with  capacity  of  8  million  passengers  per  year  to  meet passenger transport demand of Hai Phong city and neigbouring provinces.

-  Building  Quang  Ninh  airport  with  capacity  of  10  million  passengers  per year  to  meet  demands  of  socio-economic  development  and  tourism  service  of Quang Ninh province, and to reduce pressure to Noi Bai international airport.

h) Maritime gateways

-  Building  a  big  and  international  class  seaport  in  Lach  Huyen  area  of  Hai Phong, to receive vessel of 100.000 DWT. In the period until 2020, constructing terminals with total capacity of 50 million tons per year and developing this port to reach total capacity of 220 million tons per year by 2030.

-  Continuing  to  construct  5  more  terminals  at  Dinh  Vu  port  to  meet increasing  demand  of  cargo  transport  in  coming  years  and  to  raise  capacity  of this port to maximum level of 35 million ton per year.

-  Continuing  to  expand  capacity  of  Cai  Lan  port  by  constructing  terminals No. 2, 3 and 4 to raise capacity of the port to 20 million tons by 2020.

3.4 Solutions to develop transport infrastructure of the RRDR

- First, development investment of transport infrastructure should be changed from  mainly  by  state  budget  fund  to  mainly  by  non-state  budget  funds.  State budget  capital  just  plays  role  of  "bait  capital",  supporting  investors,  sharing financial  obligations  and  risks  with  investors;  or  concentrates  on  investing  in transport infrastructure works that do not afford the capital recovery.

-  Second,  accelerating  the  application  of  public-private-partnership  model (PPP). At present, investment model in the form of BOT, BTO and BT contract is  not  effective.  PPP  model  has  a  lot  of  advantages  such  as  sharing  financial burden for investors. So, transport infrastructure projects become more feasible

in term of financial aspect and more attractive.

-  Third,  boldly  changing  structure  of  capital  allocation  from  central  state budget  towards  temporarily  reducing  financial  supports  to  remote  provinces during 10-15 years; focusing resources for the Ministry of Transport to invest in big  transport  infrastructure  works  in  order  to  creating  a  breakthrough

development  of  the  whole  system.  After  this  period,  entire  country  will concentrates resources to support again poor and remote provinces.

-  Fourth,  amending  present  regulations  on  fees  and  charges  of  transport towards  ensuring  the  recovery  of  capital  and  interest  for  investors,  in  order  to attract non-budget capital for investment in transport infrastructure of the RRDR.

-  Fifth,  creating  capital  for  urban  road  development  by  site  clearance. Renovating  the  mode  of  compensation  in  the  direction  of  clearance  of land  for road and land along 2 roadsides. After that, conducting auction of land use right. The amount collected will be used to build this road.

- Sixth, ranking order of investment priority for projects under strict discipline and  certain  criteria  in  order  to  raising  efficiency  of  investments  in  transport infrastructure  development  and  eliminating  the  current  status  of  scattered investment. The Sate builds and issues a set of criteria to determine important and

urgent  projects.  Functional  agencies  base  on  that  to  select  in  a  public  and transparent  manner  a  list  of  projects  of  priority  to  invest  in  each  period.  Annual allocation of state budget fund will be concentrated to projects in this list.

-  Seventh,  enhancing  the  coordination  between  levels  and  sectors  to  ensure  a synchronous development of transport infrastructure with other types of infrastructure and  to  avoid  losses  and  waste.  Perhaps,  considering  the  issue  of  regulations  that attribute  obligations  for  persons  who  have  no  sense  of  responsibility,  invest asynchronously transport infrastructure works with other infrastructure works.

-  Eighth,  raising  quality  of  master  plans,  especially  quality  of  forecasts; intensifying measures to preserve planned land to avoid compensation then. - Ninth, intensifying information and communication activities to raise sense and culture of people when participate in traffic. Educating people to implement

cultural behaviors when participate in traffic.

- Tenth, building high quality human resources to meet needs of constructing and  operating  modern  transport  infrastructure  system.  Having  policies  to  train, retrain and employ talents; policies to attract high quality employees to work in state management agencies and enterprises of transport sector.




Transport  infrastructure  is  a  principal  and  basical  component  of  the  socio-economic  infrastructure  system  and  is  material  and  technical  facilities  of foundation  ensuring  development  of  the  economy.  Transport  infrastructure system  of  the  RRDR  although  developed  significantly,  but  still  backward,

underdeveloped  and  unable  to  meet  needs of the  socio-economic  development. Therefore,  development  and  modernization  of  the  RRDR'  transport infrastructure  system  is  an  urgent  need.  By  studying  this  thesis,  author  draws some conclusions as follow:

- Development of transport infrastructure must be undertaken with long-term vision of tens of even hundreds of year to ensure synchronism of entire system of infrastructure and to avoid waste of resources.

-  To  make  a  breakthrough  change  of  the  whole  system  of  transport infrastructure, we must focus investments in works that could create breakthrough changes of capacity of the whole system.

-  Development  of  transport  infrastructure  must  go  along  with  raising  sense and culture of the people in participating in traffic.

-  To  settle  basically  situation  of  traffic  jams  in  Hanoi,  we  need  to  boldly expand main streets in central area of Hanoi to be large avenues.

-  To  mobilize  resources  to  develop  transport  infrastructure,  the  State  must have  policies  or  mechanisms  which  are  really  preferential  to  encourage investments in this field; do not stop at general slogans.


-  Proposing  the  Government,  the  National  Assembly,  ministries  and  sectors  to consider and to adjust structure of capital allocation from central state budget towards temporarily reducing financial supports to remote provinces in several years in order to  focus  resources  for  the  Ministry  of  Transport  to  invest  in  key  transport infrastructure works; implementing under strict discipline the principle of investment in order of priority; issuing a set of criteria to determine important and urgent projects; accelerating  the  application  of  PPP  model  in  transport  infrastructure  investment; concentrating  resources  on  completion  of  the  North-South  expressway  and  consider this project as the first priority; amending present regulations on fees and charges of transport  towards  ensuring  the  recovery  of  capital  and  interest  for  investors;  and

promoting the application of ITS on national scale.

- Proposing  local  authorities  in  the  region  to  boldly  apply  new  mode  of  site clearance and compensation to have capital to expand urban roads in Hanoi and other cities in the region.

- Proposing the authority of Hanoi capital to boldly expand some  streets of horizontal  and  vertical  axes  to  be  large  avenues  as  the  same  time  with developing urban railway network, in order to settle basically situation of traffic jams.





1.  Do  Duc  Tu  (2006),  "Developing  strongly  transport  infrastructure  -  A breakthrough step to develop rapidly economy and society of the Red River Delta region", Economy and Forecast, 2006 (5), page 58-59, 61.

2. Do Duc Tu (2010), "Which are solutions for traffic congestion in Hanoi?", Economy and Forecast, 2010 (11), page 22-24.

3.  Do  Duc  Tu  (2010),  "Discussing  about  concept  of  infrastructure  and different  kinds  of  infrastructure  in  the  economy",  Economy  and Forecast, 2010 (19), page 35-37.


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